A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian

Addenda, corrigenda, and supporting bibliography

Instructions for use

Bibliographical abbreviations

List of contributors

List of lemmata:

Unicode Version

Non-Unicode version (for older computers and browsers)

Explanation of the difference


Date of current version: 22.2.2007
E-mail address for correspondence: jnp10@cam.ac.uk
Postal address: J.N. Postgate, Trinity College, Cambridge CB2 1TQ

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A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, edited by Jeremy Black, Andrew George, and Nicholas Postgate, with the assistance of Tina Breckwoldt, Graham Cunningham, Marie-Christine Ludwig, Clemens Reichel, Jonathan Blanchard Smith, Junko Taniguchi and Cornelia Wunsch, was published in Wiesbaden in 1999 by Harrassowitz Verlag, and reprinted the following year with minor corrections. This archive is intended to act as a supplement for users of the dictionary, fulfilling several functions as described below. If sufficient use is made of this web-site, our intention is to up-date the list periodically, perhaps once a year. The majority of new entries would then no longer be justificatory, and the editors welcome further proposals for improvements and additional entries (address above). Where these are adopted they are appropriately attributed and dated. In the preparation of the first edition of the dictionary pressure of time did not permit us to take full account of all the material in the reviews of the two dictionaries and in the AfO listings, although a fair amount was incorporated from these sources.  For the second edition, we shall attempt to remedy this, and also to revise any letters which have since appeared in CAD (from R onwards). We will also take account of reviews of the CDA. This material will in due course be woven into this web-site, so that it should function as a rolling preview of the second edition.

Contents of the list of lemmata

New entries, 2004-7
To assist those who have already taken note of the first version of the list, all entries of whatever kind which have been added to the web-site since September 2004 are signalled by blue.

These are corrections of typographical errors or inadvertent omissions. They are not substantive improvements of the material in the dictionary in its original incarnation. Included here are a few errors in the first impression already corrected in the second impression. Corrections to the printed text are indicated in this archive in red.

These are new material, whether in the form of new entries, or additions to entries already present. These are in green. At this stage no concerted attempt has been made to collect additional material, but there seemed no good reason to exclude any improvements which have come to our attention.

These are given in explanation and documentation of new words, changed translations, or new periods of attestation, by comparison with AHw and/or CAD. We aimed to incorporate in CDA corrections or additions to an AHw entry already offered by CAD (where we concurred), and have not provided documentation for these cases; however, reference is sometimes made to CAD where it improves or corrects an AHw entry under another word. Entries sometimes include short explanatory notes but in the main consist of references to a bibliographical source which will give the necessary documentation. Bibliographical abbreviations are placed at the end.

Some of the words or meanings in AHw which we have suppressed are also noted; these are placed in square brackets, not in bold font. Also a few entries note decisions not to accept a proposal made in the recent literature.

Several colleagues helped us at the initial stage by supplying material, most notably Prof. Dr K. Hecker. Since the web-site was opened we have received much Mari material from Moshe Anbar, and other contributions from a number of scholars, the most prolific of whom are Niek Veldhuis and Martin Worthington. We have made a start on absorbing the CAD R: much work has been done for this by Dr Simon Sherwin and the first few revised entries are now included. Our thanks go to all those who have contributed, and their entries are marked with their initials (see List of Contributors). Not all entries can be traced to their originator, especially when they were supplied by one of the editorial team in the course of their routine work on the dictionary. Where a new proposal is the brainchild of one editor, this is usually indicated so as to absolve the other editors from responsibility.


The list below is largely retrospective, attempting to assist the users of the CDA by supplying chapter and verse for our divergences from or additions to the two main dictionaries of Akkadian. However, it is not comprehensive, as there inevitably remain many smaller and larger points of difference for which we have not provided documentation.  Sometimes this may be because a difference did not seem sufficiently significant to merit mention, but in other cases it was simply submerged in the ongoing editorial process. We will be able and willing to make further retrospective entries if they seem called for. It is important to emphasise that this archive is specifically compiled for the purposes of A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. It does not therefore seek to supply comprehensive references to new attestations of words or periods already recognized by the dictionary, nor to discussions of words or lexical points which (in our view) have not led to a clear result suitable for incorporation in the next edition. As in the dictionary itself, we have not normally taken up words which are only known from unpublished texts, or single attestations (hapax legomena) on which there is an element of uncertainty.

Unicode and Non-Unicode versions

The list of lemmata appears in two versions:

Unicode version

For newer computers and browsers, a Unicode version is provided. Unicode is the international standard for software encoding. Unicode fonts ensure that many different character sets can be displayed correctly within one font, and so eliminate the need for special fonts for different languages and character sets.  They contain all the diacritics necessary for transliteration of Akkadian.

Non Unicode Version

For older computers or browsers, a version with only ASCII characters is provided. In this version, the following transcription conventions are used:
a macron - a:
e macron - e:
i macron - i:
u macron - u:
het - h
shin - $
s.adi - ç
t.et - #

Bibliographical abbreviations

 Apart from standard Assyriological abbreviations:
Dercksen, J.G., OACTA The Old Assyrian copper trade in Anatolia (Leiden 1996).
Etudes Fleury J.-M. Durand (ed.), Florilegium Marianum. Recueil d�études en l�honneur de Michel Fleury (Mémoires de N.A.B.U. 1; Paris 1992).
Farber, W., Schlaf! Schlaf, Kindchen, Schlaf! Mesopotamische Baby-Beschwörungen und -Rituale (Eisenbrauns 1989).
Festschrift Ten Cate Theo P.J. van den Hout & Johan de Roos (eds.), Studio historiae ardens : ancient Near Eastern studies presented to Philo H.J. Houwink ten Cate on the occasion of his 65th birthday (1995).

Festschrift Wilcke W. Sallaberger, K. Volk & A. Zgoll (eds.), Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien. Festschrift für Claus Wilcke (Harrassowitz; Wiesbaden 2003)

Figurative language M.Mindlin/M.J.Geller/J.E.Wansbrough (eds.), Figurative language in the Ancient Near East (London 1987).
George, Topographical texts A.R. George, Babylonian topographical texts (=Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 40).
Grégoire, Contribution J.-P. Grégoire, Contribution à l�histoire sociale, économique, politique et culturelle du Proche-Orient ancient, Vol. 1 (Archives administratives et inscriptions cunéiformes: Ashmolean Museum, Bodleian collection, Oxford; Paris 1996).
Güterbock Tribute H.A.Hoffner/G.M.Beckman (eds.), Kani$$uwar. A tribute to Hans G. Güterbock on his seventy-fifth birthday May 27, 1983 (Assyriological Studies 23; Chicago 1986). ($=shin)
Hecker et al. 1998 Kappadokische Keilschrifttafeln aus den Sammlungen der Karlsuniversität Prag
Livingstone, MMEW A. Livingstone, Mystical and mythological explanatory works of Assyrian and Babylonian scholars (Oxford 1986).
Maul, Er$ahunga S.M. Maul, �Herzberuhigungsklagen�. Die sumerisch-akkadischen Er$ahunga-Gebete (1988). ($=shin)
Mélanges Birot J.-M.Durand/J.-R.Kupper (eds.), Miscellanea Babyloniaca. Mélanges offerts à Maurice Birot (Paris 1985).
Mélanges Finet M. Lebeau/P.Talon, Reflets des deux fleuves. Volume de mélanges offerts à André Finet (Akkadica Supplementum VI (1989).
Mélanges Kupper Ö. Tunca (ed.), De la Babylonie à la Syrie, en passant par Mari. Mélanges offerts à Monsieur J.-R. Kupper à l�occasion de son 70e anniversaire (Liège 1990).
Studi Saporetti P. Negri Scafa/P. Gentili (eds.), Donum Natilicium. Studi in onore di Claudio Saporetti in occasione del suo 60o compleanno (Rome 2000).
Studies Diakonoff M.A. Dandamayev et al. (eds.), Societies and Languages of the ancient Near East (Warminster 1982).
Studies Lambert A.R.George/I.L.Finkel, Wisdom, gods and literature. Studies in Assyriology in honour of W.G. Lambert (Eisenbrauns 2000).

Studies Oates L. al-Gailani-Werr et al. (eds.), Of pots and plans: Papers on the archaeology and history of Mesopotamia and Syria presented to David Oates in honour of his 75th birthday (NABU Publications, London; 2002).
Studies N. Özgüç  M.J.Mellink/E.Porada/T.Özgüç (eds.), Aspects of art and iconography: Anatolia and its Neighbors. Studies in honor of Nimet Özgüç (Ankara 1993).
Studies Reiner F. Rochberg-Halton (ed.), Language, literature, and history: philological and historical studies presented to Erica Reiner (American Oriental Series 67, New Haven 1987).
Studies Sachs E.Leichty/M.deJ.Ellis/P.Gerardi (eds.), A scientific humanist. Studies in memory of Abraham Sachs (Philadelphia 1988).
Studies Sjöberg H. Behrens/D.Loding/M.T.Roth (eds.), DUMU-E2-DUB-BA-A. Studies in honor of Ãke Sjöberg (Philadelphia 1989).
Studies T. Özgüç  K. Emre/M. Mellink/B. Hrouda/N. Özgüç (eds.), Anatolia and the Ancient Near East. Studies in honor of Tahsin Özgüç (Ankara 1989).
Studies Veenhof W.H. van Soldt et al. (eds.), Veenhof Anniversary Volume. Studies presented to Klaas R. Veenhof on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday (Leiden 2001)
A.J.Sachs/H.Hunger Astronomical Diaries and related texts from Babylonia, I (Wien 1988); II (Wien 1989); III (Wien 1996).


This version of the archive has been prepared by J.N. Postgate, with the editorial assistance of Dr Simon J. Sherwin and technical advice from Dr Guy Deutscher and Dr Eleanor Robson. We are grateful to all who gave advice. Changes attributed to Stol without bibliographical reference derive from his review article (Bi.Or. 57 (2000) 625-9).

Contributors' initials
MA Moshe Anbar
RB Rykle Borger
SMD  Stephanie Dalley
RE Roland Enmarch
KF Karljürgen Feuerherm
ARG Andrew George
KH  Karl Hecker 
MJ  Michael Jursa
AK Anne Kilmer
JNP  John Nicholas Postgate
ER  Eleanor Robson
DS  Daniel Schwemer
PS  Peter Steinkeller
MS Marten Stol
JT Jon Taylor
NK Niek Veldhuis
MLW  Martin West
MJW Martin Worthington 


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