AHRC funded project:  Diagrams, Figures and the Transformation of Astronomy, 1450–1650




Last updated 25 June 2008



Primary Sources


·         Guides and dictionaries

·         Aristotle

·         Sacrobosco

·         Theorica planetarum

·         Regiomontanus

·         Copernicus

·         Apian

·         Kepler

·         Galilei

·         Instruments

·         Euclid

·         Ptolemy

·         Emblems

·         Other


·         Historiographical and philosophical

·         Forms of visualisation

·         Classical and medieval traditions

·         Essential background

·         Printing and production

·         Celestial apparitions

·         Mathematical – mixed and pure

·         Individuals

·         Instruments

·         Mapping

·         Astrology and alchemy

·         Other types





Primary sources


Guides and dictionaries

Bennett, James A., and Domenico Bertoloni Meli. Sphaera Mundi: Astronomy books in the Whipple Museum 1478-1600. Cambridge: Whipple Museum, 1994.

Chojecka, Eva. Astronomische und astrologische Darstellungen und Deutungen bei kunsthistorischen Betrachtung alterwissenschafltichen Illustrationen des XV bis XVIII Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1967.

Cohen, I. Bernard. Album of science; from Leonardo to Lavoisier 1450- 1800. New York: Scribner, 1980.

Gingerich, Owen. An annotated census of Copernicus' De revolutionibus (Nuremberg, 1543 and Basel, 1566). Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill, 2002.

Harley, J. B., and David Woodward, eds. The history of cartography, Vol.1, Cartography in prehistoric, ancient, and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Vol. Vol.1, Cartography in prehistoric, ancient, and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Chicago and London, 1987.

Hay, Cynthia, ed. Mathematics from Manuscript to Print 1300-1600. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Heninger, S. K. Jr. The Cosmographical Glass: Renaissance diagrams of the universe. San Marino, 1977.

Houzeau, J. C., A. Lancaster, and D. W. Dewhirst, eds. General Bibliography of Astronomy to the Year 1880. originally published ed. 3 vols. London, 1964.

Lachièze-Rey, M., and Jean-Pierre Luminet. Figures du ciel. Seuil: BNF, 1998.

LaLande, Jerome de. Bibliographie astronomique. (originally published 1803) ed. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 1970.

Lohr, C. H. Latin Aristotle Commentaries II.  Renaissance Authors 1501-1600. Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1988.

Mantello, F. A. C., and A. G. Rigg, eds. Medieval Latin: an introduction and bibliographic guide. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1996.

Murdoch, John Emery. Album of science: antiquity and the middle ages. New York: Scribner, 1984.

Nordenskiöld, A. E. Facsimile Atlas to the early history of cartography with reporductions of the most important maps printed in the XV  and XVI centuries. Translated by Johan Adolf Ekelöf and R. Markham Clements. Stockholm, 1887.

Page, Sophie. Astrology in medieval manuscripts. London: The British Library, 2002.

Page, Sophie. Magic in medieval manuscripts. London: The British Library, 2004.

Shirley, Rodney W. The mapping of the world: early printed world maps, 1472-1700, 1983.

Stephenson, B., M. Bolt, and A. F. Friedman. The universe unveiled: instruments and images through history. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Woodward, David. The History of Cartography. Volume 3: Cartography in the European Renaissance. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Zinner, E., ed. Geschichte und Bibliographie der astronomischen Literatur in Deutschland zur Zeit der Renaissance. Stuttgart, 1964

Zinner, Ernst. Verzeichnis der astronomischen Handschriften des deutschen Kulturgebietes. Munich: C. H. Beck, 1925.



Gallica: digitized rare books, downloadable, priority given to French authors/publications: http://gallica.bnf.fr/

digitized mss of Cod. Sang.250 9th century computus; Cod. Sang. 376 11th century calendar and computus: http://www.cesg.unifr.ch/de/index.htm

Incunabula STC at the BL

http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/istc/index.html provides a link if a book has been digitized – always worth a check.

Some key astronomical texts digitized at:


Some key astronomical images digitized at:




Boyle, Leonard E. Medieval Latin Paleography: a bibliographical introduction. Toronto, 1984.

Capelli, Adriano. Dizionario Abbreviature latine ed italiane. sixth ed. Milan: U. Hoepl, 1999.

Deferrari, R. J., and M. I. Barry. A lexicon of St. Thomas Aquinas, based on the ’Summa theologica’ and selected passages of his other works. Washington, 1948-9.

García, Mariano Fernández. Lexicon scholasticum philosophico-theologicum : in quo termini, definitiones, distinctiones et effata a Joanne Duns Scoto exponuntur, declarantur. originally published 1910 ed. Hildesheim, 1974.

Goclenius, R. Lexicon philosophicum : quo tanquam clave philosophiae fores aperiuntur. originally published 1613 ed. Hildesheim, 1964.

Mantello, F. A. C., and A. G. Rigg, eds. Medieval Latin: an introduction and bibliographic guide. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1996.

North, J. D. "Aspects of the Language of Medieval Mathematics." In Vocabulary of Teaching and Research Between Middle Ages and Renaissance, edited by Olga Weijers, 133-50. Turnhout: Brepols, 1995.

Wallace, W. "An index of Greek ligatures and contractions." The Journal of Hellenic Studies 43, no. 2 (1923): 183-93.

Weijers, O., ed. Vocabulary of teaching and research between Middle Ages and Renaissance. Turnhout: Brepols, 1995.

Weijers, Olga. Vocabulaire du livre et de l’écriture au Moyen Âge. Turnhout: Brepols, 1987.

Aristotle and Aristotelians

Albertus, Magnus. Philosophia pauperum Alberti magni. Brixia: Præsbyter Baptista de Farfengo, 1490.

Albertus, Magnus. Summa philosophiae naturalis Alberti Magni. Leipzig: M. Lansperg, 1502.

Albertus, Magnus. Meteora. Edited by P. Hossfeld. Vol. VI-1, Opera Omnia. Aschendorff, 2003.

Alliaco, Petrus de. Imago mundi: J. de Paderborn, 1483.

Aquinas, Thomas. Questiones cum textu beati Thomae Aquinatis in Liplztzensi gymnasio per Iohannem Lintholtz de Muncheberch accuratissime comportatae atque ad unguem correcte (De ente et essentia). Leipzig, 1501. 

Aristotle. On the heavens. Translated by W. K. C. Guthrie. London, 1939.

Bricot, Thomas. Textus abbreviatus Aristotelis super octo libris physicorum et tota naturali philosophia a magistro Thoma Bricot.... Paris: H. Stephanus, 1504.

Bruxellensis, Georgius, and Thomas Bricot. Cursus optimarum questionum super Philosophiam Aristotelis cum interpretatione textus secundum viam Modernorum: ac ?m cursum magistri Georgij: [Bruxellensis] Per magistrum Thomam Bricot sacre Theologie professorem emendate. Freiburg i. Br: K. Fischer?, [1490]. [BL copy belongedf the monastery of Tegensee 1496, beginning of De Caelo et Mundo - cosmological diagram Mm6r; rubrics]

Campo, Heimericus de. Reparationes librorum totius philosophiae naturalis secundum processum Albertistarum et Thomistarum. Cologne: U. Zell, 1494.

Faber Stapulensis, Jacobus. Totius philosophie naturalis paraphrases. Paris: Wolffgangum Hopylium, 1501.

Harderwick, Gerardus. In Epitomata totius philosphiae naturalis que trito sermone reprationes appellantur. Albertocentonas continentia in bursa Laurentiana florentissimi Agrippinensis gymnasii castigatissime edita. Cologne: H. Quentel, 1496. [BL copy has ms diagram of the universe Fvj v]

Hawenreuther, J. L. In libros quatuor de caelo et duos de ortu et interitu. Strasbourg: L. Zetzner, 1606.

Lansperg, Martin. Summa philosophiae naturalis Alberti Magni per tractatus capitula et particulas pulcherrime distincta, 1502.

Lindholtz, Johannes of Muncheberck. Questiones cum textu beati Thomae Aquinatis in Lipktzensi gymnasio per Iohanne Lintholtz de Nuncheberck accuratissime comportate atque ad unquem correcte. Leipzig: [W. Stöckel], 1500. [BL copy wide margins, then comments in single line C5v gives good eg. of medieval cosmological diagram, with Deus, table at tned to summarise content]

Meybreti, Amadeus. Questiones in libros de celo et mundo. Paris: J. Petit, 1514.[MAny diagrams towards end; is it significant that it is in De C and M, not Sacrobosco, LXIIII r]

Orbellis, Nicolaus de. Cursus librorum philosophie naturalis [of Aristotle]secundum viam doctoris subtilis Scoti. Basle: M. Furter, 1494. [BL copy Gir diagram of cosmos with prim. mob. and TO; Giiv, epicycles. diagrams of halo and rainbow. i1recto: De huiusmodi autem mineralibus in quarto huius specialius determinatur: quod communiter non legitur: et de ipso ad presens pertranseo]

Petrus, de Arvernia. Questions on Aristotle's De caelo. Edited by Griet Galle. Leuven, 2003.

Simplicius. Commentaire sur le Traite du Ciel d'Aristote. Edited by F. Bossier, C. Vande Veire and G. Guldentops. Leuven, 2004.

Versor, Johannes. Questiones Versoris super. De celo et mundo.-De generatione et corruptione.-Metheororum.-Parva naturalia. Cologne: H. Quentell, 1488.


Sacrobosco, Johannes. Liber de sphaera. Wittenberg: J. Klug, 1531

Thorndike, Lynn. The Sphere of Sacrobosco and its commentators. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949

Gingerich, Owen. "Sacrobosco illustrated." In Between demonstration and imagination: essays in the history of science and philosophy presented to John North, edited by Lodi Nauta and Arjo Vanderjagt, 211-224. Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, 1999.

Sarnowsky, Jürgen. "The defence of the Ptolemaic system in late mediaeval commentaries on Joannes de Sacrobsoco's De sphaera." In Mechanics and cosmology in the medieval and early modern period, edited by Massimo Bucciantini, Michele Camerota and Sophie Roux, 29-44. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 2007.



Theorica planetarum

Gerardus Cremonensis, the Elder. Theorica planetarum Gerardi. Edited by James Carmody Francis: Berkeley, Ca., 1942.

Purbachius, Georgius. Theoricae novae planetarum. Nuremberg: J. Regiomontanus, 1474. See also: http://www.univie.ac.at/hwastro/rare/1473_peuerbach.htm



Regiomontanus, Johanes. Sphaera mundi. [Georgius Purbachius:] Theoricae novae planetarum. [Regiomontanus:] Disputationes contra Cremonensia deliramenta. Venice: Guilelmus Anima Mia, 1491.

Regiomontanus, Johannes. Ephemerides sive Almanach perpetuum. Venice: P. Liechtenstein, 1497.

Regiomontanus, Johannes. Regiomontanus on Triangles: De triangulis omnimodis by Johann Müller, otherwise known as Regiomontanus. Translated by Barnabas Hughes. Madison & London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.


Ortroy, F. van. Bibliographie de l'oeuvre de Pierre Apian. Amsterdam: Meridian Publishing, 1963.

Apian, Petrus. Isagoge in typum cosmographicum seu mappa mundi (ut vocant) quam Apianus sub Illustrissimi Saxoniae Ducis auspicio praelo nuper demandari curavit. Landshut: Joahnnes Weyssenburger, 1524.

Apianus, Petrus. Cosmographicus Liber. Edited by Gemma Frisius. Antwerp, 1533.

Apianus, Peterus. Horoscopion generale dignoscendis horis cuiuscumque generis aptissimum. Ingolstadt: [P. Apian], 1533.

Apianus, Petrus. Astronomicum caesareum. Ingolstadt: [P. Apian], 1540.

Apianus, Petrus. Astronomicum caesareum. facs. ed. Leipzig, 1967.


Gingerich, Owen. An annotated census of Copernicus' De revolutionibus (Nuremberg, 1543 and Basel, 1566). Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill, 2002.

Copernicus, Nicholas. On the revolutions. Translated by Edward Rosen. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1978.

Swerdlow, N., and O. Neugebauer. Mathematical astronomy in Copernicus’s De revolutionibus. 2 vols. New York, 1984.

Rosen, Edward (1971). Three Copernican Treatises: the commentariolus of Copernicus, Letter against Werner, the Narratio Prima of Rheticus. 3rd rev. ed. (originally published 1939) ed. New York: Octagon Books, 1971.


Kepler, Johannes. The harmony of the world. Translated by Eric John Aiton, A. M. Duncan and J. V. Field, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society ; v. 209. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society, 1997.

Kepler, Johannes. Kepler’s Conversation with Galileo’s Sidereal messenger. Translated by Edward Rosen. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1965.

Kepler, Johannes. Dissertatio cum nvncio sidereo nuper ad mortales misso à Galilæo Galilæo, mathematico Patavino. Prague: Danielis Sedesani, 1610.

Kepler, Johannes. The six-cornered snowflake; [edited and translated from the Latin by Colin Hardie, with essays by L.L. Whyte and B.F.J. Mason]. Oxford, 1966.

Kepler, Johannes. Kepler’s Dream. With the full text and notes of Somnium, sive Astronomia lunaris Joannis Kepleri. Translated by Patricia Frueh Kirkwood. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965.


Galilei, Galilei. The Starry Messenger. Translated by A. van Helden. Chicago, 1989.

Galilei, Galilei. Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems, Ptolemaic & Copernican. Translated by Stillman Drake. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1953.

Galilei, Galilei. Dialogues concerning two new sciences. Translated by H. Crew and A. Salvio. New York: Dover, 1954.


King, David A., and Gerard L'E. Turner. "The astrolabe presented by Regiomontanus to Cardinal Bessarion in 1462." Nuncius 9, no. 1 (1994): 165-205.

Leopold, John H. "Collecting instruments in Protestant Europe before 1800." Journal of the History of Collections 7 (1995): 151-7.

Stephenson, B., M. Bolt, and A. F. Friedman. The universe unveiled: instruments and images through history. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Turner, A. J. The Time Museum vol. I. Time measuring instruments, part. I. Astrolabes, astrolabe related instruments. Rockford, Ill.: The Time Museum, 1985.

Turner, G. L'E., and D. J. Bryden. A classified bibliography on the history of scientific instruments. Oxford, 1997.



Thomas-Stanford, Charles. Early editions of Euclid's Elements. London: The Bibliographical Society, 1926.

Euclid. Preclarissimus liber elementorum Euclidis perspicacissimi. Venice: E. Ratdolt, 1482.

Euclid. Stoicheion. Edited by Basle S. Grynaeus: J. Herwagen, 1533.

Euclid. In Euclidis Elementa Geometrica Demonstrationum libri sex. Edited by J. Peletier. Lyon: J. Tornaesium et G. Gazeium, 1557.

Euclid. Les six premiers livres des elements d'Euclide. Paris: H. de Marnef and G. Cavellat, 1564.

Euclid. Elements. Translated by Henry Billingsley. Edited by John Dee. London: John Day, 1570.

Euclid. Elementorum Libri XV, Commandino, Francesco, 1572.



Campbell, Tony. The Earliest Printed Maps 1472-1500. London: The British Library, 1987.

Pedersen, Olaf. A survey of the Almagest. Odense: Odense Universitesforlag, 1974.

Windsor, J. A bibliography of Ptolemy's geography. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1884.

Ptolemy, Claudius. The Almagest. Translated by R. Catesby Taliaferro and others, Great books of the Western World; 16. Chicago and London, 1963.

Ptolemy. Geography. Translated by Joseph Fischer. New York: New York Public Library, 1932.

Ptolemy, Claudius. The geography. Translated by Edward L. Stevenson. New York: Dover, 1966.



For a guide to the excellent collection at Glasgow and other material, see:


Digitized English texts on emblems:


Alciato’s Emblematum: Latin-English edition


Tycho Brahe’s Astronomicae instauratae mechanica (1602) Latin text and images:




Altdorf. Emblemata anniversaria Academiae Altorfinae studiorum iuventutis excercitandorum causa proposita et variorum oratinibus exposita. Nuremberg: Imp. Levini Hulsy, 1597.

Camerarius, Joachim. Jr. Symbola et Emblemata. 1986 ed. exists ed. Nuremberg, 1590/1605.

Ripa, Cesare. Iconologia, overo, Descrittione dell’imagini vniuersali : cauate dall’antichita et da altri luoghi. Rome: per gli heredi di G. Gigliotti, 1593.

Rollenhagen, Gabriel. Nucleus emblematorum selectissimorum quea Itali vulgo impressas vocant (edit. 1611). Paris: Aux Amateurs de Livres, 1989.

Sambucus, Johannes. Emblemata. Antwerp: C. Plantin., 1564.

Taurellus, Nicolaus. Emblema physico-ethica. Nuremberg, 1595.




Bovillus, C. Liber de intellectu...Epistole complures. Paris: J. Petit, 1511.

Cardano, Opera omnia, in pdf: http://filolinux.dipafilo.unimi.it/cardano/testi/opera.html

Gassendi, Pierre. Institutio astronomica. Paris: L. de Hevqueville, 1647.

Gebhard, Jacob. Theoretmata physica iuxta normam methodum. Frankfurt a. M.: F.  Harman, 1616.

Nabod, Valentino. Valentini Naibodae Primarum de Coelo et Terra Institutionum, Quotidianarum Mundi Revolutionum Libri tres. Venice, 1573.

Feild, John. Ephemeris anni 1557, currentis juxta Copernici et Reinhaldi canones. London, 1556.

Fine, Oronce. De cosmographia, sive mundi sphaera, 1532.

Fine, Oronce. Protomathesis. Paris: G. Morrhius and J. Petrus, 1532.

Fine, Oronce. De mundi sphaera, sive cosmographia. Paris: S. Colinaeus, 1542.

Fludd, Robert. Utriusque Cosmi majoris scilicet et minoris metaphysica atque technica: Oppenhemii ; Francofurti, 1617.

Gemma, Cornelius. De arte cyclognomica. Antwerp: ex. off. C. Plantini, 1569.

Glockendon, Albrecht, the younger. Geomantie Ottoheinrichs von der Pfalz, 1537.

Horneus, Conradus. Compendium naturalis philosophiae. Marburg: A. Kirchner, 1618.

Iacchaeus, Gilbertus. Institutiones Physicae iuventutis Lugdinensis studiis. Lyon: Elzevier, 1614.

Le Fèvre, Jacques, Franciscus Vatablus, and Aristotle. In hoc opere continentur totius philosophiæ naturalis paraphrases a. Parisiis: Apud S. Colinæum, 1528.

Valerius, Cornelius. Physicae, seu de naturae philosophia instituio, perspicue et breviter explicata. Antwerp: ex off. Plantin, 1574.

Varènes, Alain de. De Harmonia, 1512.

Verro, Sebastian. Physicorum libri X. London: ex officina Henrici Bynneman, 1581.

Wendelin, M. F. Contemplatio physicarum. Frankfurt: A. and C. Schleich, 1624.

Werner, Johannes. Super vigintiduobus elementis conicis. Nuremberg: F. Peyps for L. Alantsee, 1522.

Wetternavi, Combachius. Physicorum libri IV. Frankfurt a. M.: C. Unckel, 1619.


Studies on Individuals


Folkerts, M. "Regiomontanus' Role in the Transmission and Transformation of Greek Mathematics." In Tradition, Transmission, Transformation, edited by F. J. Ragep and et. al. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Hamann, G., ed. Regiomontanus Studien. Vienna, 1980.

Shank, M. "Regiomontanus and homocentric astronomy." Journal of the History of Astronomy 29 (1998): 157-166.

Steele, J. M., and S. F. Richard. "Eclipse observations by Regiomontanus." Journal of the History of Astronomy 29 (1998): 331-344.

Swerdlow, Noel M. "Regiomontanus on the critical problems of astronomy." In Nature, Experiment and the Sciences, edited by T. H. Levere and W. R. Shea, 165-95. Dordrecht, Boston and London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990.

Swerdlow, Noel M. "Regiomontanus's concentric-sphere models for the sun and moon." Journal for the History of Astronomy 30 (1999): 1-23.

Swerdlow, Noel M. "Science and humanism in the Renaissance: Regiomontanus' oration on the dignity and utility of the mathematical sciences." In World-Changes: Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science, edited by P. Horwich, 131-168. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993

Zeller, M. C. The development of trigonometry from Regiomontanus to Pistiscus. Ann Arbor, 1944.

Zinner, Ernst. Regiomontanus: his life and work. Translated by Ezra Brown. Originally published in 1968 as Leben und Wirken des Johannes Müller von Königsberg, genannt Regiomontanus ed. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford and Tokyo: North-Holland, 1990.



Barker, Peter. "Copernicus, the orbs, and the equant." Synthese 83 (1990): 317-323.

Czartoryski, Pawel. "The Library of Copernicus." Studia Copernicana 16 (1978): 355-401.

De Pace, Anna. "Copernicus against a rhetorical approach to the beauty of the universe. The influence of the Phaedo on the De revolutionibus." In Res et Verba in der Renaissance, edited by I Maclean and E. Kessler, 77-115. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002.

Gatti, H. "Giordano Bruno's Copernican diagrams." Filozofski Vest. 25, no. 2 (2004): 25-50.

Jardine, N. "The significance of the Copernican orbs." Journal for the History of Astronomy 13 (1982): 168-194.


Ortroy, F. van. Bibliographie de l'oeuvre de Pierre Apian. Amsterdam: Meridian Publishing, 1963.

Röttel, Karl, ed. Peter Apian: Astronomie, Kosmographie und Mathematik am Beginn der Neuzeit. Buxheim-Eichstätt: Polygon Verlag, 1995.

Vanden Broecke, Steven. "The use of visual media in Renaissance cosmography: the Cosmography of Peter Apian and Gemma Frisius." Paedagogica Historica 36, no. 1 (2000): 130-50.


Hannaway, Owen. "Laboratory design and the aim of science: Andreas Libavius versus Tycho Brahe." Isis 77 (1986): 584-610.

Christianson, John Robert. On Tycho's Island: Tycho Brahe and his Assistants, 1570-1601. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000

Mosley, Adam. Bearing the heavens : Tycho Brahe and the astronomical community of the late sixteenth century. Cambridge, 2007.

Chen-Morris, Raz, and Sabetai Unguru. "Kepler's critique of the medieval perspectivist tradition." In Optics and Astronmy, edited by G. Simon and S. Débarbat, 83-92. Turnhout, 2001.

Dawes, H.A.L. "Kepler and Platonic solids: the first accurate planetarium that was ever made." Bulletin of the Scientific Instruments Society 48 (1996): 23-24.

Granada, Miguel A. "The defence of the movement of the earth in Rothmann, Maestlin and Kepler: from heavenly geometry to celestial physics." In Mechanics and cosmology in the medieval and early modern period, edited by Massimo Bucciantini, Michele Camerota and Sophie Roux, 95-119. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 2007.

Malet, A. "Keplerian illusions: geometrical pictures vs. optical images in Kepler's visual theory." Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 21 (1990): 1-40.

Pantin, Isabelle. "Kepler's Epitome: New images for an innovative book." In Transmitting Knowledge: Words, Images, and Instruments in Early Modern Europe, edited by S. Kusukawa and I Maclean, 217-237. Oxford, 2006.

Straker, Stephen. "Kepler, Tycho and the "optical part of astronomy" and the genesis of Kepler's theory of pinhole images." Arch. Hist Exact. Sci. 24 (1981): 267-93.

Straker, Stephen. "The Eye Made "Other": Dürer, Kepler and the Mechanisation of Light and Vision." In Science, Technology and Culture in Historical Perspective, edited by L. Knafia, M. Staum and T. Travers. Calgary, 1976.

Strano, Giorgio, and Giancarlo Truffa. "Tycho Brahe cosmologist: an overview on the genesis, development and fortune of the geo-heliocentric world-system." In Mechanics and cosmology in the medieval and early modern period, edited by Massimo Bucciantini, Michele Camerota and Sophie Roux, 73-93. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 2007.


Voelkel, J. R. Johannes Kepler and the New Astronomy. Oxford, 1999.


Biagioli, M. Galileo's instruments of credit : telescopes, images, secrecy. Chicago, 2006.

Bredekamp, H. Galilei der Künstler. Die Mond. Die Sonne. Die Hand. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2007.

Drake, Stillman. Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography. originally published 1978 ed. New York: Dover, 1995.

Edgerton, Samuel Y. Jr. "Galileo, Florentine "Disegno" and the "Strange Spottednesse" of the Moon." Art Journal 44 (1984): 225-32.

Feldhay, R. "Producing sunspots on an iron pan: Galileo's scientific discourse." In Science, Reason and Rhetoric, edited by H. Krips and others, 119-43. Pittsburgh, 1995.

Frangenberg, Thomas. "A private homage to Galileo. Anton Domenico Gabbiani's frescoes in the Pitti Palace." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 59 (1996): 245-269.

Mueller, P. R. "An unblemished success: Galileo's sunspot argument in the Dialogue." Journal for the History of Astronomy 31, no. 4 (2000).

Reeves, Eileen. Painting the heavens : art and science in the age of Galileo. Princeton, NJ ; Chichester: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Reeves, Eileen. Galileo's Glassworks: the telescope and the mirror. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Van Helden, Albert. "Galileo and Scheiner on sunspots: a case study in the visual language of astronomy." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 140 (1996): 358-396.

Whitaker. "Galileo's lunar observations and the dating of the composition of the Sidereus Nuncius." Journal of the History of Astronomy 9 (1978): 155-69.





Historiographical and philosophical

Alpers, Svetlana. The art of describing: Dutch art in the seventeenth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Bastide, F. "The iconography of scientific texts." In Representation in scientific practice, edited by Michael Lynch and Steve Woolgar. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1990. On modern material, but relevant.

Baxandall, M. Painting and experience in fifteenth century Italy; a primer in the social history of pictorial style. Oxford: Clarendon, 1972.

Baxandall, Michael. Patterns of intention: on the historical explanation of pictures. New Haven, 1985.

Burke, U. Peter. Eyewitnessing: the uses of images as historical evidence. London: Reaktion, 2001.

Elkins, James. "Art history and images that are not art." Art Bulletin 77, no. 4 (1995): 553-71.

Foster, Hal. Vision and Visuality. Seattle, 1988.

Freedberg, David. The power of images: studies in the history and theory of response. Chicago, 1989.

Gombrich, E. The image and the eye: further studies in the psychology of pictorial representation. Oxford: Phaidon, 1982.

Goodman, Nelson. Languages of art: an approach to a theory of symbols. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1976.

Greaves, Mark. The philosophical status of diagrams. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 2002.

Ivins, William M. Jr. Prints and visual communications. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1953.

Latour, Bruno, and Peter Weibel. Iconoclash: Beyond the Image Wars in Science, Religion and Art. Karlsruhe, 2002.

Lynch, M., and S. Edgerton. "Aesthetics and digital image processing: representational craft in contemporary astronomy." In Picturing power: visual depiction and social relations, edited by Gordon Fyfe and John Law, 184-220. London, 1988.

Mitchell, W. J. T. "The pictorial turn." In Picture theory: essays on verbal and visual representation, 11-34. Chicago and London, 1994.

Mitchell, W. J. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago, 1986.

Mitchell, W. J. T. The Language of Images. Chicago, 1980.

Nelson, R. S. Visuality before and after the Renaissance: seeing as others saw. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Olson, David R. The world on paper: The conceptual and cognitive implications of writing  and reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Panofsky, Erwin. Meaning in the Visual Arts. London, 1955.

Rotberg, R. I., and T. K. Rabb. Art and history: images and their meaning. Cambridge, 1988.

Rudwick, Martin. "The Emergence of a visual language for geological science 1740-1840." History of Science 14 (1976): 149-95.

Starn, R. "Seeing Culture in a Room of a Renaissance Prince." In The New Cultural History, edited by Lynn Hunt. Berkeley, 1989.

Forms of visualisation

Baigrie, Brian S., ed. Picturing knowledge : historical and philosophical problems concerning the use of art in science. Toronto, Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Barker-Plummer, Dave, ed. Words, proofs and diagrams. Stanford, 2002.

Bredekamp, H., and Pablo Schneider, eds. Visuelle Argumentationen: Die Mysterien der Repräsentation und die Berechenbarkeit der Welt. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 2006.

Daston, Lorraine, and Peter Galison. Objectivity. New York: Zone, 2007.

Edgerton, Samuel Y. Jr. The Heritage of Giotto's Geometry: Art and Science on the Eve of the Scientific Revolution. Ithaca: Cornell Univeristy Press, 1991.

Hankins, Thomas L. "A ‘Large and Graceful Sinuosity’: John Herschel's Graphical Method." Isis 97 (2006): 605-33.

Hinterwaldner, Inge, and Markus Buschhaus, eds. The picture's image: Wissenschaftliche Visualisierung als Komposit. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 2006.

Jones, Caroline A., and Peter Galison, eds. Picturing Science, Producing Art. London and New York: Routledge, 1998.

Kaiser, David. Drawing theories apart : the dispersion of Feynman diagrams in Chicago. Chicago, 2005.

Lefèvre, Wolfgang, Jürgen Renn, and Urs Schoepflin, eds. The Power of Images in Early Modern Science. Basel, Boston, and Berlin, 2003.

Mahoney, Michael S. "Diagrams and Dynamics: Mathematical Perspectives on Edgerton's Thesis." In Science and the Arts in the Renaissance, edited by John W. Shirley and F. David Hoeniger, 198-220. Washington: The Folger Shakespeare Library, 1985.

Mazzolini, Renato G., ed. Non-verbal communication in science prior to 1900. Firenze: Olschki, 1993

Classical and medieval traditions

Huffman, Carl A. Archytas of Tarentum : Pythagorean, philosopher and mathematician. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Netz, R. The shaping of deduction in Greek mathematics : a study in cognitive history. Cambridge, 1999.

Taub, Liba Chaia. Ptolemy's Universe: the natural philosophical and ethical foundations of Ptolemy's Astronomy. Chicago: Open Court Press, 1993.

Taub, Liba. Ancient meteorology. London: Routledge, 2003.



Aiken, J. A. "Truth in images: from the technical drawings of Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari, Campanus of Novara, and Giovanni De'Dondi to the perspective projection of Leon Battista Alberti." Viator 25 (1994): 325-357.

Aiton, E. J. "Celestial spheres and circles." History of Science 19 (1981): 75-114.

Allan, Donald James. "Mediaeval Versions of Aristotle, De Caelo, and of the Commentary of Simplicius." In Medieval and Renaissance Studies, edited by Richard Hunt and Raymond Klibansky. London: The Warburg Institute, 1951.

Baltusaitis, J. "Cercles astrologiques et cosmographiques à la fin du Moyen Age." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 22 (1939): 65-84.

Grant, E. Planets, stars, and orbs: the medieval cosmos, 1200-1687. Cambridge, 1994.

Heimann-Seelbach, Sabine. "Diagrammatik und Gedaechtniskunst: zur Bedeutung der Schrift fuer die Ars memorativa im 15. Jahrhundert." In Schule and Schueler im Mittelalter, edited by Martin Kintzinger, Sönke Lorenz and Michael Walter, 385-410. Cologne, 1996.

King, David A. "Medieval monastic ciphers in Renaissance printed texts." In Verfasser und Herausgeber mathematischer Texte der frühen Neuzeit, edited by R. Gebhardt, 51-62. Annaberg-Buchholz, 2002.

Kühnel, Bianca. The end of time in the order of things : science and eschatology in early medieval art. Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner, 2003.

Kunitzsch, Paul. "Letters in geometrical diagrams: Greek--Arabic--Latin." Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften (1991).

Müller, Kathrin. "Formen des Anfangs. Sphärendiagramme aus dem 13. Jahrhundert." In Bildwelten des Wissens. Kunsthistorisches Jahrbuch für Bildkritik. Band 3.1. Diagramme und Bild Ordnungen, 85-96; 61-63, 2005.

Norman, Jesse. After Euclid : visual reasoning & the epistemology of diagrams. [Stanford, Calif.], 2006.

North, J. D. "Coordinates and categories: the graphical representations of functions in medieval astronomy." In mathematics and its applications to science and natural philosophy in the Middle Ages: Essays in honor of Marshall Clagett, edited by E. Grant and J. E. Murdoch, 173-188. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

———. "Diagram and thought in medieval science." In Villard's legacy: studies in medieval technology, science and art in memory of Jean Gimpel, edited by M-T. Zenner, 265-88. Aldershot, 2004.

Obrist, Barbara. "Wind diagrams and medieval cosmology." Speculum 72 (1997): 33-84

Patschovsky, A., ed. Die Bildwelt der Diagramme Joachims von Fiore. Ostfildern: J. Thorbecke, 2003.

Pedersen, Olaf. "The Decline and Fall of the Theorica planetarum." Studia Copernicana 16 (1978): 157-85.

Pedersen, Olaf. "Theorica: a study in language and civilization." Classica et mediaevalia 22 (1961): 151-166.

Popplow, Marcus. "Setting the world machine in motion: the meaning of machina mundi in the Middle Ages and the early modern period." In Mechanics and cosmology in the medieval and early modern period, edited by Massimo Bucciantini, Michele Camerota and Sophie Roux, 45-70. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 2007.

Randles, W. G. L. The unmaking of the medieval Christian cosmos, 1500-1760 : from solid heavens to boundless æther. Aldershot, 1999.

Shank, Michael H. "Mechanical thinking in European astronomy (13th-15th centuries)." In Mechanics and cosmology in the medieval and early modern period, edited by Massimo Bucciantini, Michele Camerota and Sophie Roux, 3-27. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 2007.

Voigts, L. E. "The Latin verse and Middle English prose texts on the Sphere of Life and Death in Harley 3719." Chaucer Review 21 (1986): 291-305.

Wirth, Karl-August. "Von mittelalterlichen Bildern und Lehrfiguren im Dienste der Schule und des Unterrichts." In Studien zum städischen Bildungswesen des späten Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit, edited by Bernd Moeller, Hans Patze and Karl Stackmann, 256-370. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983.

Essential background

Barker, Peter, and Bernard R Goldstein. "Realism and instrumentalism in sixteenth century astronomy: a reappraisal." Perspectives on Science 6, no. 3 (1998): 232-258.

Eastwood, B. "Astronomy and optics from Pliny to Descartes: texts, diagrams and contextual structures." London, 1989.

———. "The diagram "spera celestis" in the "Hortus deliciarum": A confused amalgam from the astronomies of Pliny and Martianus Capella." Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza di Firenze 6, no. 1 (1981): 177-186.

Eastwood, B., and Gerd Grasshoff. "Planetary diagrams - descriptions, models, theories: From Carolingian deployments to Copernican debates." In The power of images in early modern science, edited by Wolfgang Lefèvre, J. Renn and Urs Schoepflin, 197-226. Basel, Boston and Berlin, 2003.

Ferguson, Stephen. "System and Schema: Tabulae of the fifteenth to the eighteenth century." Princeton University Library Chronicle 49 (1987): 9-30.

Franklin, James. "Diagrammatic reasoning and modelling in the imagination: the secret weapons of the scientific revolution." In 1543 and all that, edited by G. Freeland and A. Corones, 53-115. London: Kluwer, 2000.

Gingerich, Owen. "Circles of the Gods: Copernicus, Kepler, and the Ellipse." Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 47, no. 4 (1994): 15-27.

Granada, Miguel A. "Celestial spheres: The presence of these strange but persistent objects in  Western thought." Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, no. 29 (1998).

Gormans, Andreas. "Imagination des Unsichtbaren. Zur Gattungstheorie des wissenschaftlichen Diagramms." In Erkenntnis, Erfindung, Konstruktion. Studien zur Bildgeschichte der Naturwissenschaften und Technik vom 16. zum 19. Jahrhundert, edited by Hans Holländer, 51-71. Berlin, 2000.

Grant, E. Planets, stars, and orbs: the medieval cosmos, 1200-1687. Cambridge, 1994.

Jardine, N. "The places of astronomy in early-modern culture." Journal for the History of Astronomy 29 (1998): 49-62.

Pantin, Isabelle. La Poésie du Ciel en France dans la seconde moitié du seizième siècle, Travaux d'humanisme et Renaissance 297,. Geneva: Droz, 1995.

Palmerino, Carla Rita. "Bodies in water like planets in the skies: uses and abuses of analogical reasoning in the study of planetary motions." In Mechanics and cosmology in the medieval and early modern period, edited by Massimo Bucciantini, Michele Camerota and Sophie Roux, 145-68. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 2007.

Thoren, V. "Prosthaphaeresis revisted." Historia mathematica 15 (1988): 32-39.

Printing and production

Alexander, Jonathan James Graham. "Facsimiles, copies, and variations: the relationship to the model in medieval and Renaissance European manuscripts." In Retaining the original: multiple originals, copies, and reproductions, edited by National Gallery of Art, 61-72. Hanover and London: National gallery of Qrt, Washington, 1989.

Billingsley, D. "Erhard Ratdolt and the 1482 edition of Euclid's Elements." Library Review 40, no. 18-29 (1990).

Brackenridge, J. B. "The defective diagram as an analytical device in Newton's "Principia"." In Religion, science, and worldview: Essays in honor of Richard S. Westfall, edited by M. J. Osler and P. L. Farber, 61-93. Cambridge, 1985.

Bühler, Curt F. The fifteenth-century book, the scribes, the printers, the decorators. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960.

Chatelain, J-M., and L. Pinon. "Genres et functions de l’illustration au XVIe siècle." In La naissance du livre moderne (XIVe-XVIIe siécles) mise en page et mise en texte du livre français, edited by H.-J. Martin, 236-269. Paris, 2000.

Cole, Marc. "Eine geometrische Wanderung durch die Renaissance: Gutenberg, Tory and Vignola übersetzen Euclides." Gutenberg Jahrbuch (1992): 190-197.

Gascoigne, Bamber. How to identify prints, a complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to ink jet. London: Thames & Hudson, 1986.

Gascoigne, Bamber. Milestones in colour printing 1457-1859: with a bibliography of Nelson prints. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Geißler, P. "Erhard Ratdolt." Lebensbilder aus dem Bayerischen Schwaben 9 (1966): 97-153.

Gingerich, Owen. "Sacrobosco as a textbook." Journal of the History of Astronomy 19 (1988): 269-73.

Haebler, K. The study of incunabula. Edited by L. E. Osborne. originally published as Handbuch der Inkunabelkunde ed. New York, 1933.

Hay, Cynthia, ed. Mathematics from Manuscript to Print 1300-1600. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Honemann, V., S. Griese, F. Eisermann, and M. Ostermann, eds. Einblattdrucke des 15. und frühen 16 Jahrhunderts, Probleme, Perspektiven, Fallstudien. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2000.

Jensen, K., ed. Incunabula and their readers: printing, selling and using books in the fifteenth century. London: British Library, 2003.

Landau, David, and Peter Parshall. The Renaissance Print: 1470-1550. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Lowood, H. and Rider, R. "Literary technology and typographic culture: the instrument of print in early modern science." Perspectives on Science 2 (1994): 1-37.

Neville, P. "The Printer's Copy of Commandino's translation of Archimedes 1558." Nuncius 1, no. 2 (1986): 7-12.

Ott, Norbert H. "Leitmedium Holzschnitt; Tendenzen und Entwicklungslinien der Druckillustration im Mittelalter und früher Neuzeit." In Die Buchkultur im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert, edited by Maximilian-Gesellschaft and Barbara Tiemann, 163-252. Hamburg: Maximilian-Gesellschaft, 199

Pantin, Isabelle. "Les problèms de l'édition des livres scientifiques: l'example de Guillaume Cavellat." In Le Livre dans l'Europe de la Renaissance, edited by P. Aquilon and H.-J. Martin. Tours: Promodis, 1988.

Pantin, Isabelle. "L'illustration des livres d'astronomie à la Renaissance: l'evolution d'une discipline à travers ses images." In Immagini per conoscere: Dal Rinascimento alla Rivoluzione scientifica, edited by F. Meroi and C. Pogliano, 3-41. Florence, 2001.

Saenger, Paul, and Michael Heinlin. "Incunable description and its implication for the analysis of fifteenth-century reading habits." In Printing the Written Word: the social history of books circa 1450-1520, edited by S. Hindman, 225-258. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Voelkel, J. R. "Publish or perish: Legal contingencies and the publication of Kepler's "Astronomia nova"." Science in Context 12 (1999): 33-59.

Weijers, Olga. Vocabulaire du livre et de l’écriture au Moyen Âge. Turnhout: Brepols, 1987.

Wingen-Trennhaus, A. "Regiomontanus als Frühdrucker in Nürnberg." Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg 78 (1991): 17-87.

Celestial apparitions

Christianson, J. R. "Tycho Brahe's German treatise on the comet of 1577:  a study in science and politics." Isis 70 (1979): 110-40.

Heller, Clarisse Doris. The Comet of 1577: its place in the history of astronomy. New York and London: Columbia University Press andP. S. King & Staples, 1944.

Holländer, E. Wunder, Wundergeburt und Wundergestalt in Einblattdrucken des fünfzehnten bis achtzehnten Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart, 1921.

Jervis, Jane L. "Vögelin on the comet of 1532: error analysis in the 16th century." Centaurus 23 (1980): 216-229.

Jervis, Jane L. "Cometary Theory in Fifteenth-Century Europe." Studia Copernicana 26 (1985).

Methuen, C. ""This comet or new star" theology and the interpretation of the nova of 1572." Perspectives on Science 5, no. 4 (1997): 499-515.

Nouhuys, Tabitta van. The age of two-faced Janus: the comets of 1577 and 1618 and the decline of the Aristotelian world view in the Netherlands. Leiden, 1998.

Schechner Genuth, Sarah. Comets, popular culture, and the birth of modern cosmology: Princeton, 1997.

Mathematical – mixed or otheriwse

Alexander, Amir. "Harriot and Dee on exploration and mathematics: did scientific imagery make for new scientific practice?" In The heirs of Archimedes: science and the art of war through the age of Enlightenment, edited by B. D. Steele and T. Dorland. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Büttner, J., P. Damerow, J. Renn, and M. Schmmel. "The challenging images of artillery: practical knowledge at the roots of the scientific revolution." In Power of images, 3-27, 2004.

De Nil, E., and M. De Mey. "Hieronymus Fabricius d'Aquapendente: De visione, ending of the perspectivist tradition." In Optics and astronomy, edited by G. Simon and S. Débarbat, 51-81. Turnhout, 2001.

Dupré, Sven. "Vizualisation in Renaissance optics: the function of geometrical diagrams and pictures in the transmission of practical knowledge." In Transmitting Knowledge: Words, Images, and Instruments in Early Modern Europe, edited by S. Kusukawa and I Maclean, 11-39. Oxford, 2006.

Field, J. V. "Renaissance mathematics: diagrams for geometry, astronomy and music." Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 29 (2004): 259-77.

Frangenberg, Thomas. "Egnatio Danti's optics: Cinquecento Aristotelianism and the medieval tradition." Nuncius 3, no. 1 (1988): 3-38.

Frangenberg, Thomas. "Perspectivist Aristotelianism: Three Case-Studies of Cinquecento Visual Theory." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 54 (1991): 137-58.

Galluzzi, P., ed. Prima di Leonardo: cultura delle machine a Siena nel Rinascimento. Milan: Electa, 1991.

Heller, Henry. Labour, science and technology in France 1500-1620. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Heninger, S. K. Jr. "Oronce Finé and English textbooks for the mathematical sciences." In Studies in the continental background of Renaissance English Literature: Essays presented to John L. Lievsay, edited by D. B. J. Randall and G. W. Williams. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1977

Mulsow, Martin. "Seelenwagen und Ähnlichkeitsmaschine: Zur Reichweite der praktischen Geometrie in der Ars cyclognomica von Cornelius Gemma." In Seelenmaschinen, edited by J.-J. Berns and W. Neuber, 249-277. Vienna, 2000.

Neuser, Wolfgang. "Syllogism and mathematics in natural science during the Renaissance." In Système de pensée précartésiens, edited by Ilana Zinguer and Heinz Schott. Paris: Champion, 1998.

Neuser, Wolfgang. "The rhetoric of utility: avoiding occult associations of mathematics through profitability and pleasure." History of Science 37 (1999): 151-178.

Stevens, Wesley M. "A double perspective on the Middle Ages." In Non-verbal communication in science prior to 1900, edited by Renato G. Mazzolini, 1-28. Firenze: Olschki, 1993.


Anderson, R. G. W., J. A. Bennett, and W. F. Ryan, eds. Making Instruments Count: Studies in Honour of Gerard Turner. London: Variorum, 1993.

Bedini, Slivio A. Patrons, artisans and instruments of Science, 1600-1750. Ashgate: Aldershot, 1999.

Bennett, J. A. "Practical geometry and operative knowledge." Configurations 6, no. 2 (1998): 195-22.

Brown, J. "Guild organisation and the instrument-making trade, 1550-1830." Annals of Science 36 (1979): 1-34.

Chapman, Allan. Astronomical Instruments and Their Users: Tycho Brahe to William Lassell, Variorum. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

Chapman, Allan. Astronomical Instruments and Their Users: Tycho Brahe to William Lassell, Variorum. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

Dennis, Michael Aaron. "Graphic Understanding: Instruments and Interpretation in Robert Hooke's Micrographia." Science in Context 3, no. 2 (1989): 309-64.

Eagleton, Catherine. "Medieval sundials and manuscript sources: the transmission of information about the Navicula and the Organum Ptolomei in fifteenth-century Europe." In Transmitting Knowledge: Words, Images, and Instruments in Early Modern Europe, edited by S. Kusukawa and I Maclean, 41-71. Oxford, 2006.

Endrei, Walter. "Jean Errard (1554-1610) and his book of machines: Le Premier Livre des instruments mathematiques mechaniques of 1584." History of Technology 17 (1996): 179.

Hankins, Thomas L., and Robert J. Silverman. Instruments and the imagination. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Hannaway, Owen. "Laboratory design and the aim of science: Andreas Libavius versus Tycho Brahe." Isis 77 (1986): 584-610.

Heilbron, John L. "Churches as Scientific Instruments." Bulletin of the Scientific Insturments Society 48 (1996): 4-9.

Mosley, Adam. "Objects of knowledge: mathematics and models in sixteenth-century cosmology and astronomy." In Transmitting Knowledge: Words, Images, and Instruments in Early Modern Europe, edited by S. Kusukawa and I Maclean, 193-216. Oxford, 2006.

Simcock, A. V. "Elucidatio fabricae ususque: Rambling Among the Beginnings of the Scientific Instrument Bookshelf." In Learning, Language and Invention: essyas presented to Francis Maddison, edited by W. D. Hackmann and A. J. Turner, 273-96. Aldershot & Paris: Variorum and the Societe Internationale de l'Astrolabe, 1994.

Van Helden, Albert. The Birth of the Modern Scientific Instrument 1550-1700. Edited by John G. Burke, The Uses of Science in the Age of Newton. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Warner, Deborah Jean. "What is a scientific instrument, when did it become one, and why?" Bristish Journal for the History of Science 23 (1990): 83-93.


Bloom, Terrie F. "Borrowed perceptions: Harriot's maps of the moon." Journal of the History of Astronomy 9 (1978): 117-122.

Edson, Evelyn. Mapping Time and Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed Their World. London: The British Library, 1997.

Frangenberg, Thomas. "Chorographies of Florence. The use of city views and city plans in the sixteenth century." Imago Mundi 46 (1994): 41-64.

Snyder, John P. Flattening the earth : two thousand years of map projections. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Vertesi, Janet. "Picturing the Moon: Hevelius and Riccioli’s visual Debate." Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 38 (2007): 4-1-21.

Westrem, S. D. The Hereford map : a transcription and translation of the legends with commentary. Turnhout, 2001.

Winkler, Mary G., and A. van Helden. "Johannes Hevelius and the visual language of astronomy." In Renaissance and Revolution: humanists, scholars, craftsmen, and natural philosophers in Early Modern Europe,, edited by J. V.  Field and F. A. J. L. James. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Woodward, David. The History of Cartography. Volume 3: Cartography in the European Renaissance. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Astrology and alchemy

Jardine, N., and A. Segonds. "A challenge to the reader: Ramus on Astrologia without hypothesis." In The influence of Petrus Ramus: studies in sixteenth and seventeenth century philosophy and science, edited by M. Feingold, J. S. Freedman and W. Rother, 248-66. Basel, 2001.

Segol, M., ed. Visible magic: diagrams in Kabbalah and Jewis magic and medieval cosmopolitanism. London: Palgrave, 2007.

Other types of images

Frangenberg, Thomas. "The image and the moving eye: Jean Péletier to Guidobaldo dal Monte." Journal of the Warburg and the Courtauld Institutes 49 (1986): 150-71.

Gerl, Hanna-Barbara. "Humanistische und geometrische Sprachphilosophie: Ein Paradigmenwechsel von Leonardo Bruni zu Francesc Patrizi." Zeitschrift für philosophische Forshung 36, no. 2 (1982): 189-207.

Larking, J. H., and H. A. Simon. "Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth ten thousand words." Cognitive science 11 (1987): 65-99.

Maclean, I. "Diagrams in the defence of Galen: medical uses of tables, squares, dichotomies, wheels and latitudes, 1480-1574." In Transmitting Knowledge: Words, Images, and Instruments in Early Modern Europe, edited by S. Kusukawa and I Maclean, 135-164. Oxford, 2006.

Miller, C. L. "Nicolas of Cusa's De ludo Globi: symbolic roundness and eccentric life paths." Text and image 10 (1983): 135-148.

Poggenpohl, S. H., and D. R. Winkler. "Diagram as Tools for Worldmaking." Visible Language 26, no. 3 and 4 (1992): 252-269.

Rosen, E. "Francesco Patrizi and the celestial spheres." Physis 26, no. 3 (1984): 305-324.

Smedley, Geoffrey. "Reason and analogy: a reading of the diagrams : Piero della Francesca,  Plato, Ptolemy and others." In Piero della Francesca tra arte e scienza, edited by M. D. Emiliani and V. Curzi, 385-406. Venice: Marsilio, 1996.